junio 2009


Advantages and Disadvantages

Online dictionary and encyclopedia sources offer great convenience and quick access to the information you need. These references are at their finest when they go beyond the capabilities of print, such as when they allow users to take advantage of multimedia content. You can hear famous speeches, see scans of historical documents and view helpful diagrams and charts with just a few clicks.

Many free online encyclopedias stem from collaborative efforts such as Wikipedia or compilations of FAQs. Sometimes this leads to greater accuracy as experts weigh in on their specialties, but these sites are just as likely to be overtaken with propaganda, spam and incorrect information. The best Wikis have safeguards against their misuse, but you should still be careful when using such sites as an authoritative source, and double check you data as much as possible.

 

Resource: (2009, June 8). From, Online. Retrieved 21:05, June 8, 2009, from: http://online.lovetoknow.com/wiki/Category:Online_Dictionary_and_Encyclopedia

 

 

Dictionary with pen

 

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Received Pronunciation, or RP for short, is the instantly recognisable accent often described as ‘typically British’. Popular terms for this accent, such as ‘The Queen’s English’, ‘Oxford English’ or ‘BBC English’ are all a little misleading. The Queen, for instance, speaks an almost unique form of English, while the English we hear at Oxford University or on the BBC is no longer restricted to one type of accent.

RP is an accent, not a dialect, since all RP speakers speak Standard English. In other words, they avoid non-standard grammatical constructions and localised vocabulary characteristic of regional dialects. RP is also regionally non-specific, that is it does not contain any clues about a speaker’s geographic background. But it does reveal a great deal about their social and/or educational background.

Resource: British Library. In British Library, BL,  ( 2009, June 6). Retrieved  18:40,  May 6, 2009, from: http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/find-out-more/received-pronunciation/

Examples:

BBC news,

Queen Elisabeth,

 

Almorzar comida casera en la oficina es un lujo del que  hoy en día muy poca gente disfruta, a no ser que tengas una mamá que te mime eternamente. 

Creada por los japoneses de Thanko, la USB Hot Lunch Bag es una lonchera que mantiene tu comida caliente mientras esperas a comértela. Sólo debes conectar el cable a tu computador y listo!

The International Corpus of English (ICE) project was initiated in 1988 by the late Sidney Greenbaum, the then Director of the Survey of English Usage, University College London. In a brief notice in World Englishes, Greenbaum pointed out that grammatical studies had been greatly facilitated by the availability of two computerized corpora of printed English, the Brown Corpus of American English, and the LOB (Lancaster/Oslo-Bergen) Corpus of British English. Greenbaum continued:

We should now be thinking of extending the scope for computerized comparative studies in three ways: (1) to sample standard varieties from other countries where English is the first language, for example Canada and Australia; (2) to sample national varieties from countries where English is an official additional language, for example India and Nigeria; and (3) to include spoken and manuscript English as well as printed English. (Greenbaum 1988)

In response, linguists from around the world came forward to discuss Greenbaum’s proposal, and ultimately to put it into effect (Greenbaum 1991). The project soon became known as the International Corpus of English (ICE), and was coordinated by Greenbaum until 1996. From 1996 to 2001, ICE was coordinated by Charles Meyer, University of Massachusetts-Boston. It is now coordinated by Gerald Nelson in Hong Kong. The ICE project involves research teams in each of the countries or regions shown below.

Australia 
Cameroon 
Canada 
East Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania)
Fiji 
Great Britain
Hong Kong
India
Ireland
Jamaica 
Kenya 
Malta

  Malaysia
New Zealand
Nigeria 
Pakistan
Philippines
Sierra Leone 
Singapore
South Africa 
Sri Lanka 
Trinidad and Tobago 
USA

Each ICE team is compiling – or has already compiled – a one million-word corpus of their own national or regional variety of English. Crucially, each team follows a common corpus design and a common annotation scheme, in order to ensure maximum comparability between the components (Nelson 1996). The long-term aim of ICE is to produce up to twenty one million-word corpora, each syntactically analysed according to a common parsing scheme, and supplied with the retrieval software, ICECUP.

Each ICE corpus samples the English of adults (age 18 or over) who have been educated through the medium of English to at least the end of secondary schooling. Furthermore, each component corpus is grammatically analysed using a common grammatical annotation scheme.

resource: The International Corpus of English (2009, June 6).In The International Corpus of English (ICE). Retrieved, 17:24, June 6, 2009, from: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/english-usage/projects/ice.htm